the last three decades of Spanish control of Texas, say 1790s to
1819, the location of the border between the United States and Spanish
Texas was a matter of opinion. The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 complicated
the dispute. The treaty that transferred Louisiana Territory left
a legacy of indefiniteness that allowed some US citizens to claim
as far west as the Brazos River and Spaniards to argue for a line
even east of the Sabine.
To prevent military clashes, in 1806 Generals James Wilkinson and
Simon Herrera reached an agreement that created a Neutral Ground
between the Sabine and the Arroyo Hondo. This was a 50-mile wide
corridor into which neither army would send troops to enforce their
nation's laws. This created a haven for folks who do not like obeying
laws and a problem when Neutral Ground residents ventured into US
or Spanish jurisdictions and continued lawless behavior.
A solution was for Spain to allow the US Army, which was closer,
to conduct punitive raids into the Neutral Ground. Lt. Augustus
Magee, an early graduate of West Point, drew this duty and he did
it well. In the process he became familiar with the Neutral Ground's
Enter Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, a nationalist who wanted to end
Spain's control of Mexico--and Texas. In 1812 Gutierrez teamed with
Magee to recruit the Army of the North from Neutral Ground residents.
They were called filibusters, but think more in term of mercenaries.
Recruits were paid $40 per month and a promise of rich land endowments
when they succeeded in seizing Texas from Mexico.
Why did Magee
abandon his career in the US Army for such an uncertain reward?
Some suggest that his resignation was a ruse to mask covert government
policy to make Texas available for American expansion. Others point
to Magee's eventual suicide and claim that his affiliation with
Gutierrez evidenced emotional instability even then.
This much is
known: Magee and Gutierrez captured Nacogdoches,
proclaimed Texas free of Spain, and continued their campaign by
capturing the presidio at Goliad.
Reinforced Spanish forces besieged them there and during the siege
Magee "got dead." Gutierrez claimed Magee committed suicide; others
say it was a murder with the motive of eliminating American influence
in the new state.
It all came to naught anyway. Magee was replaced by Samuel Kemper
and then Henry Perry, and Gutierrez by Jose Alvarez de Toledo. The
venture collapsed after Perry's men were defeated by General Joaquin
de Arredondo's Spanish soldiers at the Battle
of the Medina.
24-30, 2002 column
A syndicated column in over 40 East Texas newspapers
(Archie P. McDonald is Director of the East Texas Historical
Association and author or editor of over 20 books on Texas)
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